Monday, March 26, 2012

About the Algonquin Tribes


ABOUT THE ALGONQUIAN TRIBES AREA.

The area formerly occupied by the Algonquian family was more extensive than that of any other linguistic stock in North America, their territory reaching from Labrador to the Rocky Mountains, and from Churchill River of Hudson Bay as far south at least as Pamlico Sound of North Carolina. In the eastern part of this territory was an area occupied by Iroquoian tribes, surrounded on almost all sides by their Algonquian neighbors. On the south the Algonquian tribes were bordered by those of Iroquoian and Siouan (Catawba) stock, on the southwest and west by the Muskhogean and Siouan tribes, and on the northwest by the Kitunahan and the great Athapascan families, while along the coast of Labrador and the eastern shore of Hudson Bay they came in contact with the Eskimo, who were gradually retreating before them to the north. In Newfoundland they encountered the Beothukan family, consisting of but a single tribe. A portion of the Shawnee at some early period had separated from the main body of the tribe in central Tennessee and pushed their way down to the Savannah River in South Carolina, where, known as Savannahs, they carried on destructive wars with the surrounding tribes until about the beginning of the eighteenth century they were finally driven out and joined the Delaware in the north. Soon afterwards the rest of the tribe was expelled by the Cherokee and Chicasa, who thenceforward claimed all the country stretching north to the Ohio River.
48The Cheyenne and Arapaho, two allied tribes of this stock, had become separated from their kindred on the north and had forced their way through hostile tribes across the Missouri to the Black Hills country of South Dakota, and more recently into Wyoming and Colorado, thus forming the advance guard of the Algonquian stock in that direction, having the Siouan tribes behind them and those of the Shoshonean family in front.
PRINCIPAL ALGONQUINIAN TRIBES.
Abnaki.
Algonquin.
Arapaho.
Cheyenne.
Conoy.
Cree.
Delaware.
Fox.
Illinois.
Kickapoo.
Mahican.
Massachuset.
Menominee.
Miami.
Micmac.
Mohegan.
Montagnais.
Montauk.
Munsee.
Nanticoke.
Narraganset.
Nauset.
Nipmuc.
Ojibwa.
Ottawa.
Pamlico.
Pennacook.
Pequot.
Piankishaw.
Pottawotomi.
Powhatan.
Sac.
Shawnee.
Siksika.
Wampanoag.
Wappinger.
Population.—The present number of the Algonquian stock is about 95,600, of whom about 60,000 are in Canada and the remainder in the United States. Below is given the population of the tribes officially recognized, compiled chiefly from the United States Indian Commissioner’s report for 1889 and the Canadian Indian report for 1888. It is impossible to give exact figures, owing to the fact that in many instances two or more tribes are enumerated together, while many individuals are living with other tribes or amongst the whites:
Abnaki:
“Oldtown Indians,” Maine410
Passamaquoddy Indians, Maine215?
Abenakis of St. Francis and Bécancour, Quebec
369
“Amalecites” of Témiscouata and Viger, Quebec
198
“Amalecites” of Madawaska, etc., New Brunswick
683
1,874?
Algonquin:
Of Renfrew, Golden Lake and Carleton, Ontario
797
With Iroquois (total 131) at Gibson, Ontario
31?
With Iroquois at Lake of Two Mountains, Quebec30
Quebec Province3,909
4,767?
Arapaho:
Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, Indian Territory
1,272
Shoshone Agency, Wyoming (Northern Arapaho)
885
Carlisle school, Pennsylvania, and Lawrence school, Kansas
55
2,212
49Cheyenne:
Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota (Northern Cheyenne)
517
Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency, Indian Territory
2,091
Carlisle school, Pennsylvania, and Lawrence school, Kansas
153
Tongue River Agency, Montana (Northern Cheyenne)865
3,626
Cree:
With Salteau in Manitoba, etc., British America (treaties Nos. 1, 2, and 5: total, 6,066)
3,066?
Plain and Wood Cree, treaty No. 6, Manitoba, etc.5,790
Cree (with Salteau, etc.), treaty No. 4, Manitoba, etc.8,530
17,386?
Delaware, etc.:
Kiowa, Comanche, and Wichita Agency, Indian Territory
95
Incorporated with Cherokee, Indian Territory
1,000?
Delaware with the Seneca in New York3
Hampton and Lawrence schools3
Muncie in New York, principally with Onondaga and Seneca
36
Munsee with Stockbridge (total 133), Green Bay Agency, Wis.
23?
Munsee with Chippewa at Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha Agency, Kansas (total 75)
37?
Munsee with Chippewa on the Thames, Ontario
131
“Moravians” of the Thames, Ontario288
Delaware with Six Nations on Grand River, Ontario134
1,750?
Kickapoo:
Sac and Fox Agency, Indian Territory325
Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha Agency, Kansas
237
In Mexico200?
762?
Menominee:
Green Bay Agency, Wisconsin1,311
Carlisle school1
1,312
Miami:
Quapaw Agency, Indian Territory67
Indiana, no agency300?
Lawrence and Carlisle schools7
374?
Micmac:
Restigouche, Maria, and Gaspé, Quebec732
In Nova Scotia2,145
New Brunswick912
Prince Edward Island319
4,108
Misisauga:
Alnwick, New Credit, etc., Ontario774
Monsoni, Maskegon, etc.:
Eastern Rupert’s Land, British America4,016
Montagnais:
Betsiamits, Lake St. John, Grand Romaine, etc., Quebec1,607
Seven Islands, Quebec312
1,919
Nascapee:
Lower St. Lawrence, Quebec2,860
50Ojibwa:
White Earth Agency, Minnesota6,263
La Pointe Agency, Wisconsin4,778
Mackinac Agency, Michigan (about one-third of 5,563 Ottawa and Chippewa)
1,854?
Mackinac Agency, Michigan (Chippewa alone)
1,351
Devil’s Lake Agency, North Dakota (Turtle Mountain Chippewa)
1,340
Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha Agency, Kansas (one-half of 75 Chippewa and Muncie)
38?
Lawrence and Carlisle schools15
“Ojibbewas” of Lake Superior and Lake Huron, Ontario5,201
“Chippewas” of Sarnia, etc., Ontario1,956
“Chippewas” with Munsees on Thames, Ontario454
“Chippewas” with Pottawatomies on Walpole Island, Ontario658
“Ojibbewas” with Ottawas (total 1,856) on Manitoulin and Cockburn Islands, Ontario928?
“Salteaux” of treaty Nos. 3 and 4, etc., Manitoba, etc.4,092
“Chippewas” with Crees in Manitoba, etc., treaties Nos. 1, 2, and 5 (total Chippewa and Cree, 6,066)3,000?
31,928?
Ottawa:
Quapaw Agency, Indian Territory137
Mackinac Agency, Michigan (5,563 Ottawa and Chippewa)
3,709?
Lawrence and Carlisle schools20
With “Ojibbewas” on Manitoulin and Cockburn Islands, Ontario
928
4,794?
Peoria, etc.:
Quapaw Agency, Indian Territory160
Lawrence and Carlisle schools5
165
Pottawatomie:
Sac and Fox Agency, Indian Territory480
Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha Agency, Kansas
462
Mackinac Agency, Michigan77
Prairie band, Wisconsin280
Carlisle, Lawrence and Hampton schools117
With Chippewa on Walpole Island, Ontario
166
1,582
Sac and Fox:
Sac and Fox Agency, Indian Territory515
Sac and Fox Agency, Iowa381
Pottawatomie and Great Nemaha Agency, Kansas
77
Lawrence, Hampton, and Carlisle schools
8
981
Shawnee:
Quapaw Agency, Indian Territory79
Sac and Fox Agency, Indian Territory640
Incorporated with Cherokee, Indian Territory
800?
Lawrence, Carlisle, and Hampton schools
40
1,559?
Siksika:
Blackfoot Agency, Montana. (Blackfoot, Blood, Piegan)1,811
Blackfoot reserves in Alberta, British America (with Sarcee and Assiniboine)
4,932
6,743
51Stockbridge (Mahican):
Green Bay Agency, Wisconsin110
In New York (with Tuscarora and Seneca)
7
Carlisle school4
121